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 Interview questions and Answers for Oracle Logical and Physical Architecture of Database

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Oracle Logical and Physical
Architecture of Database  Interview Questions and Answers

Interview questions and answers for Oracle Logical and Physical Architecture of Database Interview Questions and Answers

Oracle Logical and Physical Architecture of Database Interview Questions and Answers includes, Database Buffers, dictionary cache, recursive hints, redo log buffer, table space , Optional Flexible Architecture (OFA), advantage of having disk shadowing/ Mirroring, hit ratio, released segment, disadvantages of having raw devices, accuracy of the estimations.

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1.  Programming General
2.  Web General
3.  Database General
4.  Visual Basic 6
5.  ASP
6.  Visual Basic .NET and C#
7.  ASP .NET
9.  MS SqlServer
10. MySql
1. What is Database Buffers?
Database buffers are cache in the SGA used to hold the data blocks that are read from the data segments in the database such as tables, indexes and clusters DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS parameter in INIT.ORA decides the size.
2. What is dictionary cache?
Dictionary cache is information about the databse objects stored in a data dictionary table.
3. What is meant by recursive hints?
Number of times processes repeatedly query the dictionary table is called recursive hints. It is due to the data dictionary cache is too small. By increasing the SHARED_POOL_SIZE parameter we can optimize the size of Data Dictionary Cache.
4. What is meant by redo log buffer?
Changes made to entries are written to the on-line redo log files. So that they can be used in roll forward operations during database recoveries. Before writing them into the redo log files, they will first brought to redo log buffers in SGA and LGWR will write into files frequently. LOG_BUFFER parameter will decide the size.
5. How will you swap objects into a different table space for an existing database?
Export the user
Perform import using the command imp system/manager file=export.dmp indexfile=newrite.sql. This will create all definitions into newfile.sql.
Drop necessary objects.
Run the script newfile.sql after altering the tablespaces.
Import from the backup for the necessary objects.
6. List the Optional Flexible Architecture (OFA) of Oracle database? Or how can we organise the tablespaces in Oracle database to have maximum performance?
SYSTEM - Data dictionary tables.
DATA - Standard operational tables.
DATA2- Static tables used for standard operations
INDEXES - Indexes for Standard operational tables.
INDEXES1 - Indexes of static tables used for standard operations.
TOOLS - Tools table.
TOOLS1 - Indexes for tools table.
RBS - Standard Operations Rollback Segments,
RBS1,RBS2 - Additional/Special Rollback segments.
TEMP - Temporary purpose tablespace
TEMP_USER - Temporary tablespace for users.
USERS - User tablespace.
7. How will you force database to use particular rollback segment?
8. What is meant by free extent?
A free extent is a collection of continuous free blocks in tablespace. When a segment is dropped its extents are reallocated and are marked as free.
9. How free extents are managed in Ver 6.0 and Ver 7.0?
Free extents cannot be merged together in Ver 6.0.
Free extents are periodically coalesces with the neighboring free extent in Ver 7.0
10. Which parameter in Storage clause will reduce no. of rows per block?
  PCTFREE parameter
Row size also reduces no of rows per block.
11. What is the significance of having storage clause?
  We can plan the storage for a table as how much initial extents are required, how much can be extended next, how much % should leave free for managing row updations etc.,
12. How does Space allocation table place within a block?
  Each block contains entries as follows
Fixied block header
Variable block header
Row Header,row date (multiple rows may exists)
PCTEREE (% of free space for row updation in future)
13. What is the role of PCTFREE parameter is Storage clause?
This is used to reserve certain amount of space in a block for expansion of rows.
14. What is the OPTIMAL parameter?
  It is used to set the optimal length of a rollback segment.
15. What is the functionality of SYSTEM table space?
To manage the database level transactions such as modifications of the data dictionary table that record information about the free space usage.
16. How will you create multiple rollback segments in a database?
Create a database which implicitly creates a SYSTEM Rollback Segment in a SYSTEM tablespace.
Create a Second Rollback Segment name R0 in the SYSTEM tablespace.
Make new rollback segment available (After shutdown, modify init.ora file and Start database)
Create other tablespaces (RBS) for rollback segments.
Deactivate Rollback Segment R0 and activate the newly created rollback segments.
17. How the space utilisation takes place within rollback segments?
It will try to fit the transaction in a cyclic fashion to all existing extents. Once it found an extent is in use then it forced to acquire a new extent (No. of extents is based on the optimal size)
18. Why query fails sometimes?
Rollback segment dynamically extent to handle larger transactions entry loads.
A single transaction may wipeout all avaliable free space in the Rollback Segment Tablespace. This prevents other user using Rollback segments.
19. How will you monitor the space allocation?
  By quering DBA_SEGMENT table/view.
20. How will you monitor rollback segment status?
Querying the DBA_ROLLBACK_SEGS view
IN USE - Rollback Segment is on-line.
AVAILABLE - Rollback Segment available but not on-line.
OFF-LINE - Rollback Segment off-line
INVALID - Rollback Segment Dropped.
NEEDS RECOVERY - Contains data but need recovery or corupted.
PARTLY AVAILABLE - Contains data from an unresolved transaction involving a distributed database.
21. List the sequence of events when a large transaction that exceeds beyond its optimal value when an entry wraps and causes the rollback segment to expand into another extend.
Transaction Begins.
An entry is made in the RES header for new transactions entry
Transaction acquires blocks in an extent of RBS
The entry attempts to wrap into second extent. None is available, so that the RBS must extent.
The RBS checks to see if it is part of its OPTIMAL size.
RBS chooses its oldest inactive segment.
Oldest inactive segment is eliminated.
RBS extents
The Data dictionary table for space management are updated.
Transaction Completes.
22. How can we plan storage for very large tables?
Limit the number of extents in the table
Separate Table from its indexes.
Allocate Sufficient temporary storage.
23. How will you estimate the space required by a non-clustered table?
  Calculate the total header size
Calculate the available dataspace per data block
Calculate the combined column lengths of the average row
Calculate the total average row size.
Calculate the average number rows that can fit in a block
Calculate the number of blocks and bytes required for the table.

After arriving the calculation, add 10 % additional space to calculate the initial extent size for a working table.
24. It is possible to use raw devices as data files and what are the advantages over file. System files?
The advantages over file system files.
I/O will be improved because Oracle is bye-passing the kernnel whicl writing into disk.
Disk Corruption will be very less.
25. What is a Control file?
Database's overall physical architecture is maintained in a file called control file. It will be used to maintain internal consistency and guide recovery operations. Multiple copies of control files are advisable.
26. How to implement the multiple control files for an existing database?
Shutdown the databse
Copy one of the existing control file to new location
Edit Config ora file by adding new control file.name
Restart the database.
27. What is meant by Redo Log file mirrorring? How it can be achieved?
Process of having a copy of redo log files is called mirroring.
This can be achieved by creating group of log files together, so that LGWR will automatically writes them to all the members of the current on-line redo log group. If any one group fails then database automatically switch over to next group. It degrades performance.
30. What is advantage of having disk shadowing/ Mirroring?
Shadow set of disks save as a backup in the event of disk failure. In most Operating System if any disk failure occurs it automatically switchover to place of failed disk.
Improved performance because most OS support volume shadowing can direct file I/O request to use the shadow set of files instead of the main set of files. This reduces I/O load on the main set of disks.
31. What is use of Rollback Segments In Database?
They allow the database to maintain read consistency between multiple transactions.
32. What is a Rollback segment entry?
  It is the set of before image data blocks that contain rows that are modified by a transaction.
Each Rollback Segment entry must be completed within one rollback segment.
A single rollback segment can have multiple rollback segment entries.
33. What is hit ratio?
  It is a measure of well the data cache buffer is handling requests for data.
Hit Ratio = (Logical Reads - Physical Reads - Hits Misses)/ Logical Reads.
34. When will be a segment released?
  When Segment is dropped.
When Shrink (RBS only)
When truncated (TRUNCATE used with drop storage option)
35. What are disadvanteges of having raw devices?
  We should depend on export/import utility for backup/recovery (fully reliable)
The tar command cannot be used for physical file backup, instead we can use dd command which is less flexible and has limited recoveries.
36. List the factors that can affect the accuracy of the estimations?
  The space used transaction entries and a deleted record does not become free immediately after completion due to delayed cleanout.
Trailling nulls and length bytes are not stored.

Inserts of, updates to and deletes of rows as well as columns larger than a single datablock, can cause fragmentation an chained row pieces.

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