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Computer Networks

This is the collection of Sikkim Manipal University (SMU) question and answers for Computer Networks. It will help to prepare your examination. All question paper are classified as per semester, subject code and question type of Part A, Part B and Part C with multiple choice options as same as actual examination. SMU question papers includes year 2023, 2022, 2021 Sem I, II, III, IV, V, VI examinations of all subjects.

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Course Name        MCA (Master of Computer Application)

Subject Code       MC0075 (Computer Networks)

Get Questions        PART - A    PART - B    PART - C

Computer Networks Syllabus.

Part 1: Introduction To Computer Networks
Introduction; Definition of a Computer Network: What is a Network?, Components of a computer network; Use of Computer networks: Networks for companies, Networks for people, Social Issues; Classification of networks: Based on transmission technology, Based on the their scale, Local area networks, Metropolitan area networks, Wide area networks, Wireless networks.

Part 2: Network Software &Network Standardization
Introduction; Networks Software: Protocol hierarchy, Design issues for the layers, Merits and De-merits of Layered Architecture, Service Primitives; Reference models: The OSI Reference Model, The TCP/IP Reference Model, Comparison of the OSI & the TCP/IP Reference Models; Network standardization: Who's who in the telecommunication world?, Who's who in the standards world, Who's who in the Internet standards world?.

Part 3: Data Communications
Introduction; Theoretical basis for communication: Fourier analysis, Band limited signals, Maximum data rate of a channel; Transmission impairments: Attenuation distortion, Delay distortion, Dispersion, Noise, Data transmission modes, Serial & Parallel, Simplex, Half duplex & full duplex, Synchronous & Asynchronous transmission.

Part 4: Physical Layer
Introduction; Network topologies: Linear Bus Topology, Ring Topology, Star Topology, Hierarchical or Tree Topology, Topology Comparison, Considerations when choosing a Topology; Switching: Circuit switching, Message switching, Packet switching, Implementation of packet switching, Relationship between Packet Size and Transmission time, Comparison of switching techniques; Multiplexing: FDM – Frequency division multiplexing, WDM – Wavelength division multiplexing, TDM – Time division multiplexing.

Part 5: Transmission Medium
Introduction; Transmission medium: Guided & Unguided Transmission medium, Twisted pair, Coaxial cable, Optical fiber, Comparison of fiber optics and copper wire; Wireless transmission: Electromagnetic spectrum, Radio transmission, Microwave transmission.

Part 6 : Data Link Layer
Introduction: Goal of DLL; Design issues of DLL: Services provided to the Network layer, Framing, Error control, Flow control, Link Management, ARQ strategies; Error Detection and correction: Parity bits, Importance of flamming distance for error correction, Single bit error correction or (n, m) flaming code, Error Detection or Cyclic Redundant Code (CRC); Data Link layer protocols: Transmission control protocols, HDLC.

Part 7: Medium Access Control Sub Layer
Introduction; The channel allocation problem: Static channels allocation, Dynamic channels allocation in LAN‘s and MAN‘s; Multiple access protocols: Pure ALOHA or Unslotted ALOHA Protocol, Slotted ALOHA or Impure ALOHA Protocol, CSMA Protocol, CSMA/CD Protocol, Binary exponential Algorithm, Comparison of channel access protocols; IEEE standards: Ethernets, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, IEEE 802.3 frame format.

Part 8: Network Layer
Introduction; Design issues of Network layer: Nature of the service provided, Internal organization, Routing, Internetworking; Principles of Routing: Types of routing algorithms, Classes of routing algorithms, Properties of routing algorithms, Optimality principle; Routing algorithms: Shortest path algorithm, Flooding, Distance vector routing, Hierarchical routing, Link state routing, Comparison of routing algorithms; Congestion: Factors of congestion, Comparison of flow control and congestion control, General principles of congestion control, Closed loop solution; IP protocol (IPV4).

Part 9: Transport Layer
Introduction: Services of Transport layer: Service primitives; Connection establishment; Connection Release; Transport Protocols: TCP protocol, UDP protocol.

Part 10: Networking Devices
Introduction: Goal of networking devices; Repeaters: Uses of Repeaters; Hubs: Classification of Hubs, Stackable Hubs, USB Hub; Switches: Switching Methods, Comparison of switching methods, Working with Hubs and Switches, Cables Connecting Hubs and Switches, Managed Hubs and Switches, Port Density; Bridges: Bridge Implementation Considerations, Types of Bridges; Routers: Dedicated Hardware versus Server-Based Routers, Advantages and Disadvantages of dedicated hardware routers, Drawbacks of Routers; Gateways: Advantages of gateways, Gateways Functionality; Other Devices: Modems, Proxy Server, Wireless router, Brouter, Wireless Access Point (WAPs).

Part 11: Internetworking
Introduction; Motivation for internetworking: How networks differ, Internetworking; Internet architecture; Protocols and Significance for internetworking: Protocols for internetworking, Significance of internetworking; Internet layering model; Internet services; Future growth and technology.

Part 12: Internet addresses
Introduction; Universal identifiers; IP Addressing scheme; Different classes of IP addresses: Primary classful addresses, Class A, Class B, Class C, Other classes; Special IP addresses: Interpreting all Zero to mean ―THIS HOST‖, A Host on THIS NETWORK, Broadcast on LOCAL network, Broadcast on DISTANT network, LOOPBACK; Dotted decimal representation; Range of addresses in each class; Limitations to Classful Addressing; Internet addressing authority.

Part 13: ARP and RARP
Introduction; Address Resolution problem; Types of address resolution: Resolution through Direct mapping, Resolution through Dynamic Binding; ARP protocol: ARP Implementation; ARP frame format: ARP request frame, ARP reply frame; ARP cache: ARP time outs; RARP protocol: RARP request, RARP reply, Limitations.

Part 14: Subnet and Classless Addressing
Introduction; Minimizing network numbers: Transparent Routers, Proxy ARP, Subnet addressing; Subnet address extension; Subnet address format, Flexibility in Subnet address assignment, Disadvantage of fixed length subnetting; Variable length subnets: Advantage, Disadvantage; Subnet masks: Implementation of subnet using subnet masks, Representation of subnet masks, Example on subnetting, Maintenance of subnet masks; Benefits of subnets; Supernetting: Effect of supernetting on routing or CIDR, CIDR address blocks and Bit masks, CIDR address blocks and CIDR notations, Example on CIDR; CIDR reserved for private networks.

Part 15: Internet Control Message Protocols
Introduction; ICMP: ICMP Encapsulation; Types of Messages: Principle ICMP messages, ICMP message format; Testing Destination Reachability and Status: Echo Request and Echo Reply message format, Reports of Unreachability; Congested and Datagram Flow control: Source quench format; Route change requests from routers: Redirect message format; Detecting circular or long routes: Time exceeded message format; Reporting other problems; Clock Synchronization and transit time estimation: Time stamp request or reply message format; Obtaining a subnet mask: Address mask request or reply message format; Router discovery: Router advertisement message format; Router solicitation: Router solicitation message format.

Part 16: Routing in the Internet: Interior gateway protocol
Introduction; IGP: Definition, RIP, Hello protocol; OSPF: Goals, OSPF message header; OSPF message formats: Hello, Database description, Link state request, Link state update, Link state acknowledgement.

Part 17: Routing in the Internet: Exterior gateway protocol
Introduction; EGP: BGP Characteristics, BGP functionality, BGP message types, BGP message header; BGP message types: Open message, Update message, Notification message, Time to live message; Key restriction of EGP.

Part 18: Internet Applications
Introduction; Electronic mail: Architecture, Header format, User agents, E-mail Services, Different ways to convey e-mail; FTP: FTP features, FTP process Model, Transfer modes; World wide web: Architectural overview, Web Model, Common URLs, Differences between WWW and hypertext system; GOPHER; Veronica: Types of information resources included in the index; IRC: Basic IRC Commands, Multimedia.

Part 19: Internet Security
Introduction; Network security; Cryptography: Encryption model, Substitution cipher, Transposition cipher; Symmetric key algorithm: Product cipher, DES; Digital signatures: Benefits of digital signatures, Drawbacks of digital signatures; E-mail security: PGP, PEM, S/MIME, XML security.

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