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Operating Systems with Unix

This is the collection of Sikkim Manipal University (SMU) question and answers for Operating Systems with Unix. It will help to prepare your examination. All question paper are classified as per semester, subject code and question type of Part A, Part B and Part C with multiple choice options as same as actual examination. SMU question papers includes year 2022, 2021, 2020 Sem I, II, III, IV, V, VI examinations of all subjects.

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Course Name        MCA (Master of Computer Application)

Subject Code       MC0070 (Operating Systems with Unix)

Get Questions        PART - A    PART - B    PART - C

Operating Systems with Unix Syllabus.

Part 1:Overview of Operating System
Introduction to OS; What is an Operating System?; Functions of an Operating System: To hide details of hardware, Resources Management Provide a effective user interface; Evolution of Operating Systems: Early Systems, Simple Batch Systems , Multi Programmed Batch Systems , Time Sharing Systems , Distributed Systems, Real-time Operating System ; Operating System Components: Process Management , Main-Memory Management , File Management , I/O System Management , Secondary-Storage Management , Networking, Protection System, Command Interpreter System; Operating System Services: Program Execution, I/O Operations, File System Manipulation , Communications , Error Detection; Operating Systems for Different Computers.

Part 2: Operating System Architecture
Introduction; OS as an Extended Machine; Simple Structure; Layered Approach; Micro-kernels ; UNIX kernel Components ; Modules; Introduction to Virtual Machines: Hardware Virtual machine, Application virtual machine; Virtual Environment; Machine Aggregation; Implementation Techniques: Emulation of the underlying raw hardware (native execution), Emulation of a non-native system.

Part 3: Process Management
Introduction; What is a Process?; Process Creation; Process Termination; Process States: Five State Process Model, Swapping, Seven State Process Model; Process Control: Process Structure, Process Control Block, Modes of Execution, Context Switching; Example: UNIX Process; Threads: Processes Vs Threads, Why Threads?, Advantages of Threads over Multiple Processes, Disadvantages of Threads over Multiple Processes;
Types of Threads: User Level Threads, Kernel Level Threads, Thread States.

Part 4: Memory Management
Introduction; Memory Hierarchy; Paging: Control bits, Multi level page table; Segmentation:
Combined paging and Segmentation, Fetch Policy, Placement Policy, Replacement Policy, Algorithms, Page buffering ; Cleaning policy; Frame locking; Load Control; Cache Memory: Basic Structure, Cache Memory Organization, Fully Associative Mapping; Cache Performance; Fetch and write Mechanism: Demand fetch, pre-fetch, Selective fetch, Instruction and data caches, Write Operations, Write-through mechanism, Write-back mechanism; Replacement policy: Random replacement algorithm, FIFO replacement algorithms, Least recently used algorithm for a Cache; Second-level Caches; Optimizing the data cache performance: Principle of Locality, Data Blocking ; Associative Memory.

Part 5: CPU Scheduling
Introduction; CPU-I/O Burst Cycle; CPU Scheduler; Scheduling Criteria; Scheduling Algorithms: First-Come First-Serve Scheduling, FCFS, Priority Scheduling, Round Robin Scheduling, Multilevel Queue Scheduling; Multiple-Processor Scheduling: Approaches to Multiple-Processor Scheduling, Symmetric Multithreading; Thread Scheduling; Operating System Examples; Algorithm Evaluation.

Part 6: Deadlocks
Introduction; Solutions to deadlock; Deadlock detection and recovery; Deadlock avoidance; Deadlock Prevention; Livelock; Killing Zombies; Pipes.

Part 7:Concurrency Control
Introduction; What is concurrency?; Race Conditions; Critical Section; Mutual Exclusion: Requirements for mutual exclusion, Mutual exclusion by disabling interrupts, Mutual exclusion by using Lock variable, Mutual exclusion by Strict Alternation, Mutual exclusion by Peterson‘s Method:, Mutual exclusion by using Special Machine Instructions; Semaphores: What are Semaphores, Semaphore Implementation, Mutual Exclusion using Semaphore.

Part 8: File Systems and Space Management
Introduction; File Systems; File Structure: File Types, Access Modes, File Attributes;
Implementing File Systems : Files , Contiguous, Linked List, Disk Index, File Index, Directories; Space Management : Block Size and Extents, Free Space, Reliability, Bad-block Forwarding, Back-up Dumps; Consistency Checking: Transactions, Performance.

Part 9 Input-Output Architecture
Introduction; I/O structure; I/O Control Strategies; Program-controlled I/O; Interrupt-controlled I/O; Direct Memory Access; The I/O address space.

Part 10: Case Study on Window Operating Systems
Introduction; Architecture of the Windows NT operating system line: 1 User mode , Kernel mode; Windows 2000:History, Architecture; Common functionality :NTFS 5, Encrypting File System, Basic and dynamic disk storage, Accessibility support, Language & locale support, System utilities, Recovery Console; Server family functionality: Distributed File System ,Active Directory ,Volume fault tolerance ;Versions; Deployment.

Part 11: Review of Operating system Concepts
What is an Operating System?; Hardware Management, Part 1; Process Management ; Hardware Management, Part 2; The UNIX Operating System; UNIX Architecture; The History of UNIX: Berkeley Software Distributions; Process Control; Help; Environment Variables and Shells; Layers of UNIX Operating System; UNIX and Standards: UNIX for Mainframes and Workstations, UNIX for Intel Platforms, Source Versions of "UNIX", Making Changes to UNIX; Introduction to the UNIX Philosophy; Introduction to the UNIX Philosophy: Simple, Orthogonal Commands, Commands Connected Through Pipes, A (Mostly) Common Option Interface Style, No File Types .

Part 12: The Standard File Systems
Introduction: root, Swap; File System Types: s5, ufs, Ext2, Iso9660 or hsfs, msdos or pcfs2.2.6 swap, swap, bfs The boot file system, proc or procfs2.2.8 Fdisk, mkfs; File System Mounting and Un-mounting; Fsck: File System Checking; The Boot Procedure; Kernel; System
Processes; Startup Scripts; Backup & Restore: Tape Media and removal cartridge, Backup Options, dump.

Part 13:Processes in Unix
Introduction; Setting a processes priority; Other Process Related Commands; The fork() System Call; Child Process Termination; Inter Process Communication: Communications Via Pipes, The pipe() System Call; Named Pipe: Creating A Named Pipe; Message Queues: Creating A Message Queue - msgget(); The Message Structure - struct msgbuf: Writing Messages Onto A Queue - msgsnd(), Reading A Message From The Queue - msgrcv(); Semaphore; Shared Memory.

Part 14: Beginning with UNIX
Introduction: User Account Setup, Logging In to the System, After Login Succeeds; Different Privileges for Different Users; Logging Out; Using Commands: What Is a Command?, Redirecting Input and Output, Configuring Your Environment, Viewing and Setting Environment Variables, Using Shell Startup Files, Configuring with rc files; Managing Your Password; Working on the System: Erase, Kill, Stop and Start, eof; Online Help.

Part 15: UNIX File System
Introduction; The Types of UNIX Files; Creating Listing, and Viewing Files; The UNIX File Tree; File and Directory Names; Creating Directories with mkdir ; Working with Files: Copying Files with cp, Moving Files with mv, Removing Files with rm; Working with Directories: Creating Multiple Directories with mkdir, Removing a Directory with rmdir, Renaming Directories with mv, Keeping Secrets — File and Directory Permissions; Default File and Directory Permissions—Your umask; Hard and Symbolic Links.

Part 16: Managing Data Files in UNIX
Introduction; Listing Files and Directories: ls Revisited: ls The Short and Long of It, Other ls Options, Showing Hidden Files with –a, Showing File Types with –F, Listing Files Whose Names Contain Nonprintable Characters with –q, Other Useful ls Options; Using Metacharacters When Referring to Filenames: Pattern Matching on a Single Character, Pattern Matching on a Group of Characters, Pattern Matching on Character Sets; How File Substitution Works: The find Command, Search Criteria, Finding Files with a Specific Name: -name fname, Locating Files of a Specific Size: -size n, Locating Files of a Specific Size: -size n and Displaying the Path Names of Found Files: -print, Executing a UNIX Command on the Found Files: -exec cmd \;, Executing a UNIX Command on Found Files, But Querying First: -ok cmd \;, Writing Found Files to a Device: -cpio device, Search Qualifiers, Searching for Files on Only the Current File System: -mount, Altering the Search Path with –depth, Combining Search Criteria, Negating Expressions to Find Files That Don't Meet Criteria, Specifying More Than One Path to Search; Controlling Input and Output: Output Redirection, Input File Redirection, Redirecting Error Messages; Using Pipes to Pass Files Between Programs.

Part 17: Other Popular Tools in UNIX
Introduction; Making Calculations with dc and bc: Calculating with bc, Calculating with dc, Finding the Date and Time, Displaying a Monthly or Yearly Calendar with cal ; Getting Information About Users: The who Command, The finger Command, The id Command; Switching Accounts with su; Learnig More About Commands with man; Finding Information About Disk Utilization with du and df : Summarizing Disk Usage with du, Reporting Blocks and Files with df.

Part1 8: Shell Programming
Introduction; The Kernel and the Shell; The Functions of a Shell: Program Initiation, Input-output Redirection, Pipeline Connection, Substitution of Filenames, Maintenance of Variables, Environment Control, Shell Programming, How the Shell Interprets Commands, Entering Simple Commands, Redirection of Input and Output, Entering Multiple Commands on One Line, Entering Commands Too Long for One Line, Filename Substitutions on the Command Line, Substitution of Variable Data, Substituting the Results of Commands in a Command Line, Escaping from the Special Characters, Entering Data from the Shell; Shell Options: The Restricted Shell, Changing Shell Options with set, Variables, Defining Your Own (User-Defined) Variables, Conditional Variable Substitution, Substituting Default Values for Variables, Conditional Variable Substitution with Error Checking, Positional Variables or Parameters; Special Variables in the Bourne Shell: Environment Variables, HOME, IFS,  MAIL, MAILCHECK, MAILPATH, PATH, PS1, PS2, TERM; Preventing Variables from Being Changed; Shell Programming: What Is a Program?, The Shell as a Language, Using Data Variables in Shell Programs, Entering Comments in Shell Programs, Doing Arithmetic on Shell Variables, Passing Arguments to Shell Programs, Decision Making in Shell Programs, The if-then Statement, Data Output from Shell Programs, The if-then-else Statement, Testing Conditions with test, Testing Character Data, Testing Numeric Data, Testing for Files, Combining and Negating test Conditions, A Shorthand Method of Doing Tests, The Null Command, Displaying the Program Name, Nested if Statements and the elif Construct, Reading Data into a Program Interactively, The case Statement, Building Repetitions into a Program, Repeating Within a while Loop, Repeating Within an until Loop, Repeating Within a for Loop, Getting Out of a Loop from the Middle; Structured Shell Programming Using Functions; Handling the Unexpected with trap; Conditional Command Execution with the And/Or Constructs; Command aliases and Command details: Command history, Command editing, Directory Management, Arithmetic expressions, Syntax improvements, Wildcard expressions, Coprocessing Job processing, Privileged mode switching; Shell Basics: Redirection of input and output, Entering multiple commands on one line, Filename substitutions, Substitution of variables, Command substitutions, Escaping and quoting, Extending a command over multiple lines; Overview of C Shell: A Little History, Invoking C Shell.

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