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Digital Systems, Computer Organization & Architecture

This is the collection of Sikkim Manipal University (SMU) question and answers for Digital Systems, Computer Organization & Architecture. It will help to prepare your examination. All question paper are classified as per semester, subject code and question type of Part A, Part B and Part C with multiple choice options as same as actual examination. SMU question papers includes year 2022, 2021, 2020 Sem I, II, III, IV, V, VI examinations of all subjects.

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Course Name        MCA (Master of Computer Application)

Subject Code       MC0062 (Digital Systems, Computer Organization & Architecture)

Get Questions        PART - A    PART - B    PART - C

Digital Systems, Computer Organization & Architecture Syllabus.

Part 1: Number Systems
The Decimal Number System; The Binary Numbering System: Counting in Binary, Binary to Decimal Conversion, Decimal to Binary Conversion: Sum of Weight Method, Repeated Division Method, Repeated Multiplication;The Octal Numbering System: Counting in Octal, Octal to Decimal Conversion, Decimal to Octal Conversion, Sum of Weight Method, Repeated Division Method, Repeated Multiplication, Octal to Binary Conversion, Binary to Octal Conversion; The Hexadecimal Numbering System: Hexadecimal to Binary Conversion, Binary to Hexadecimal Conversion, Hexadecimal to Decimal Conversion, Hexadecimal to Octal Conversion, Decimal to Octal Conversion, Sum of Weight Method, Repeated Division Method, Repeated Multiplication; Binary Arithmetic: Binary Addition, Binary Subtraction, Binary Multiplication, Binary Division, Complementary numbering systems, 1‘s and 2‘s Complements, Binary subtraction using 1‘s complementary Method, Binary subtraction using 2‘s complementary Method; Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) Numbering system: BCD Addition.

Part 2: Boolean Algebra
Addition and Multiplication in Boolean algebra; Binary Logic Functions, Logical Gates and Truth Tables: NOT Logic, AND Logic, OR Logic, NAND Logic, NOR Logic, Ex – OR Logic, Ex – NOR Logic; Boolean Rules and Laws: Commutative law, Associative Law, Distributive Law, Boolean Rules; DEMORGAN‘s Theorem.

Part 3: Combinational Logic
Realization of switching functions using logic gates; Canonical Logic Forms: Sum of Products Form, Product of Sum Form; Universal Gate: NAND Gate as Universal Gate, NOR Gate as Universal Gate, Realization of Boolean Functions using Universal Gates; Timing Diagrams and Synchronous Logic; Realization of Combinational circuits from the truth table.

Part 4: Combination logic realization
Karnaugh Map or K – Map; Plotting a Boolean expression; Logic expression simplification with grouping cells; Quine McClusky Method: Prime implicants, Prime implicant chart.

Part 5: Analysis and Design of Combinational Logic
Binary adders: Half adder; Full adder; Binary Subtractor: Half subtractor, Full subtractor; Parallel Binary Adders; BCD Adders; Binary Comparator or Magnitude Comparator; Decoders: Basic Binary Decoder, 3 line to 8 line Decoder; Encoders: Decimal to BCD encoder, Octal to Binary Encoder; Priority Encoder: Decimal to BCD priority encoder; Code conversion: BCD to Binary conversion, Gray Code, Binary to Gray Conversion, Gray code to Binary Conversion; Multiplexers or Data Selectors; Multiplexers as logic function generators; Demultiplexers; Parity Generators and Parity Checkers: Parity, Detecting an Error.

Part 6: Latches and Flip Flops
Latches: The S-R Latch: Active HIGH S-R Latch (NOR gate S-R Latch), Active Low S-R Latch ( NAND Gate S-R Latch); Gated Latches: Gated S-R Latches, Gated D-Latch or D-flip-flop; Edge triggered Flip-Flops: Edge triggered S-R Flip-Flop (S-R FF), Edge triggered D-Flip-Flop (D-FF), Edge triggered J-K Flip-Flop (J-K FF); Asynchronous inputs: PRESET and CLEAR; Master-Slave J-K Flip Flop.

Part 7: Asynchronous Counters
Asynchronous Counters: Negative edge triggered 2-bit ripple Up-counter, Negative edge triggered 2-bit ripple Down-counter, Negative edge triggered 2-bit ripple up/down-counter; Design of modulus counters; Cascading of Ripple Counter; Integrated Circuit Asynchronous Ripple Counter: IC 7493 – A 4-bit Binary Counter, IC 7490 – A Decade Counter.

Part 8: Synchronous Counters
Up- Counters: Two bit Synchronous Binary Counters, A Three-bit Synchronous Binary Up-counter, A Four-bit Synchronous Binary Up-counter, Synchronous Decade Up-counter; Down- Counters: Two bit Synchronous Binary Counters, A Three-bit Synchronous Binary down-counter, A Four-bit Synchronous Binary down-counter.

Part 9: Shift Registers
Shift Register Classification; Serial-in, Serial-out shift register: Timings in Serial Shift operation, Serial In, Serial out Shift operation – 3 register combination; Serial In, Parallel out Shift Register; Parallel In, Parallel out Shift Register; 74LS395 – A Universal Shift Register: Serial in, Serial Out Right Shift Operation of 74LS395, Serial in, Serial Out Left Shift Operation of 74LS395; Ring counters; Johnson counters.

Part 10: Data Converters
Digital to Analog Converters (DAC): Binary Weighted Input Method, The R-2R Ladder DAC; Analog to Digital Converters (ADC): Flash Type ADC, Staircase Ramp or Digital Ramp Type; Slope Integrator Type: Single Slope Integrator Type, Dual Slope Integrator Type; Successive Approximation Method; Practical Considerations of ADCs: Resolution, Conversion Rate or Sample Frequency, Step Recovery. Book 2: Computer Organization & Architecture

Part 1: Basic Structure of a Digital Computer
Mechanical and Electromechanical ancestors; Structure of a computer system: Central processing Unit, Memory Unit, Input/Output and I/O Interface, System interconnection; Arithmetic Logic Unit; Control Unit; Bus Structure; Von Neumann Architecture.

Part 2: CPU and Register Organization
Introduction: User-visible Registers, Control and Status Registers, Program Status Word (PSW); CPU Organization: Fundamental Computer Architecture, CPU organization in 8085 microprocessor; Register Organization of different machine: The Zilog Z8000 machine, Intel 8086 machine, Motorola 68000 machine; Instruction cycles: Basic instruction cycle, Basic instruction Cycle state diagram.

Part 3: Interconnection Structures
Types of exchange of information: Modules of a System, Different types of transfers; Types of Buses ; Elements of Bus Design: Bus Types, Method of arbitration, Bus Timing, Bus width, Bus Speed; Bus Structure: Single Bus System, Two Bus Organization, The Bus Standard.

Part 4: Instruction sets: Addressing Modes and formats
Introduction: Instruction Characteristics, Instruction representation, Instruction types, Number of addresses, Instruction Set Design; Types of Operands: Data types, IBM 370 Data types, VAX Data types; Types of Operations: Data transfer, Arithmetic, Logical, Conversion, I/O, system control, Transfer of control, System Control; Addressing Modes: Direct addressing mode, Immediate addressing mode, Indirect addressing mode, Register addressing mode, Register Indirect addressing mode, Displacement addressing mode, Relative addressing mode, Base Register addressing Mode, Indexing, Stack addressing, Other additional addressing modes; Instruction formats: Instruction Length, Allocation of bits, Variable length instruction; Stacks & Subroutines: Stacks, Subroutines.

Part 5: ALU and Binary
Arithmetic: Arithmetic Logic Unit; Number Representations: Non-negative Integers, Negative Integers, Infinite-Precision Ten's Complement, Finite-Precision Ten's Complement, Finite-Precision Two's Complement, Rational Numbers; Binary Arithmetic: Overflow in Integer Arithmetic, Binary Addition, Subtraction, Another Note on Overflow, Multiplication, Unsigned Integer Multiplication: Straightforward Method, Unsigned Integer Multiplication: A More Efficient Method, Positive Integer Multiplication, Signed Integer Multiplication, Division; Floating Point Numbers: Floating Point Variables, Floating Point Arithmetic, Addition of Floating-Point Numbers, Time for Floating-Point Addition, Pipelined Floating-Point Addition; Real Numbers.

Part 6: Memory Unit
Characteristics of Memory Systems; Main Memory: Types of Random-Access Semiconductor Memory, Organization, Static and dynamic memories; Memory system considerations: Design of memory subsystem using Static Memory Chips, Design of memory subsystem using Dynamic Memory Chips; Memory interleaving; Cache Memory: Principles of cache memory, Structure of cache and main memory, Performance using cache memory, Elements of Cache Design, Mapping functions, Replacement algorithms; External Memory: Magnetic Disk, RAID; Virtual memory; Memory Management in Operating Systems.

Part 7: Input/Output
External Devices: Classification of external devices, Input/Output problems; Input/Output Module: I/O Module Function, I/O Module Decisions, Input Output Techniques, Programmed I/O: I/O commands, I/O instructions; Interrupt Driven I/O: Basic concepts of an Interrupt, Response of CPU to an Interrupt, Design Issues, Priorities, Interrupt handling, Types of Interrupts; Direct Memory Access: DMA Function and Operation, DMA Configurations; DMA Controller: DMA Transfer Types, DMA Transfer modes, DMA Controller Operation, Advantages; Synchronization Requirements for DMA and Interrupts: Synchronization with Interrupts, Synchronization with DMA.

Part 8: Control Unit
Micro operations: Micro operations of Fetch cycle, Indirect Cycle, The execute cycle, The Instruction cycle; Control of the CPU: Functional Requirements, Control Signals, Data paths and control signals; Data Path inside A CPU: Single bus structure, Two bus structure, Three bus structure, Execution of a complete instruction, Branching; Sequencing of Control Signals: Hardwired Control Unit, Micro-Programmed Control.

Part 9: Parallel Model of Computers and Pipelining
Introduction: Lookahead, Parallelism and pipelining, Flynn‘s Classification; Parallel/Vector Computers: Development Layers, New Challenges; Pipelining: Principles of Linear Pipelining, Pipeline structure of CPU, Timings of pipelining, Effect of pipelining; Basic Performance Issues in Pipelining; The Major Hurdle of Pipelining: Structural Hazards,Data Hazards, Control Hazards.

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